You can use fabricators to store materials, which you can also eject at any time. The items will drop out of the bottom left door.
Fabricators have a height of 3 blocks, and a width of around 2.5 blocks.
Before the Fabricators got split into different types, everything was made in one Fabricator. This old Fabricator item still exists in the game but was converted and renamed to the Legacy Fabricator. It is very rare since you can not craft it anymore. you can only loot it from other player's ships if they got it still on their ship. If you place the station and click on it, it will give you the option to convert the station to one of the 3 types. But this process is irreversible! So be careful on what you choose.